The child was under 9 months from the heart mamy.On always felt her closeness, warm heat inside her body, I heard my mother's heartbeat, her voice and the voices of loved ones, with whom she communicated. Born, the child expects to get the same kind world, where the cozy, warm, where the mother is always there. Basic needs of the newborn - a constant presence moms bodily contact with her and her milk. Here are tips to help you initially to properly care for a newborn.
• Breastfeeding on demand and without supplemental supplementary feeding up to 6 months. In the first month of life the baby can be applied to the chest up to 15 times a day and one feeding can take up to 45 minutes.
• Full manual period. A newborn baby is not always able to understand the words, it is best to understand the language of touch. So do not be afraid to wear your baby more often on the hands, stroking, kissing, hold the handles, etc. Thus you inform him of your love, to express concern about it. When you are holding your baby constantly keep his head and back.
• Clean the guarantee of health. It is important to maintain the cleanliness in the room where your baby. Coming from the street you first need to wash their hands and change clothes at home.
• Hygiene toddler includes daily treatment umbilical wound, cleaning of ears, eyes, nose. Umbilical residue should always be clean and dry. After each wash, wipe it with cotton wool soaked in surgical spirit. Both parts of the remainder of the umbilical cord (above and below the brackets) wipe different cotton balls on each side. In most cases the cord disappears after 5-7 days, without any problems. Umbilical cord wound after falling quite rapidly (within 1-2 days) is reduced, but still a long time (up to 3 weeks) may be damp with transparent mucous-spotting. The edges of the wound to be normal color. Redness and swelling of the wound edges are a signal of danger and require active treatment to the doctor, as well as profuse discharge from the wound, or the appearance of pus. Process wound in the first week after falling umbilical residue must two times a day (morning and evening). When the wound is dry, it can handle 1 per day. Treat the wound should be 2% solution of hydrogen peroxide and rubbing alcohol or a solution of brilliant green, trying to apply the solution directly on the wound, leaving the edges of the wound are not shaded. It is not necessary to bathe the baby until the umbilical wound healing, enough daily wiping it with a damp towel. After 2-3 weeks, you can take a bath in clean boiled water of 37.5 degrees without the use of soap. After the baby bath soak a towel. Watch carefully so that all the folds remain dry and clean. Carefully cut our nails. Try sostrich only nails, far from the place where they connect with the skin. It should also frequently change the diaper (kazhdye2-4 hours) and when changing a diaper to take air baths from 5 to 20 minutes depending on the weather and the condition of the child.
• co-sleeping with her mother in the first 3-6 months is important for the child. He will sleep well and my mother will not have to get up at night feeding.
• Daily walks is fresh air, sunlight (vitamin D, which is necessary for the absorption of calcium, serves as the prevention of rickets) and hardening. Walk with the baby starts with 2 -3 weeks vozrasta.Odet baby need one layer of clothing more than dress sami.Esli child shows no concern asleep, so he komfortno.Chtoby check, not frozen or overheated whether toddler, gingerly touched his neck from behind or below the knees. The child may be cold it by yourself- it is not a sign that he is cold. If the hands and feet warm, you need to undress baby, because overheating is dangerous to his health. First festivities lasts only 10-20 minutes, it can be carried out on the balcony, wearing a baby in season. Gradually increase the walk up to 1.5-2 hours.
• Fluctuations in body weight of the newborn, in the first 3-4 days, almost all newborns lose weight, it is related to the mechanisms of adaptation to extrauterine life and does not exceed 6-10%. Factors that help restore body weight, optimal thermal conditions and early attachment to the baby's chest. K 8-10 th day of life the body weight should be restored. If not, or if the baby continues to lose weight, you should consult your doctor.
• What should you do to calm your baby: Your baby will calm rhythm, rhythmic rocking; You can also swaddle a baby: it adds to it a sense of security.
WHO recommendations on breastfeeding
1. Early breastfeeding - during the first hour after birth!
2. Exclusion of infant feeding bottles or other means before the mother took him to her breast. It is necessary that the child has not formed any other plant on feeding than breast.
3. Joint contents of mother and child in the hospital in the same room.
4. The correct position of the baby at the breast allows the mother to avoid many problems and complications with the breast. If the mother did not teach it in the hospital, she should invite a consultant on breastfeeding and learn this specifically.
5. Feeding the baby on demand. It is necessary to put the baby to the breast for any reason, to allow him to suckle when he wants and how he wants. This is important not only for the saturation of the child, but also for his psycho-emotional comfort. To feel comfortable, baby can be applied to the chest to 4 times per hour.
6. Duration of feeding regulates child: Do not distract the child from the breast before he let go of the nipple!
7. Night infant feeding lactation provide a stable and secure woman from next pregnancy to 6 months - in 96% of cases. Moreover, it was night feedings most fulfilling and nutritious.
8. No supplemental and introducing any foreign liquids and foods. If a child wants to drink, it should be more often applied to the chest.
9. Complete rejection of the nipples, pacifiers and bottle-feeding. If necessary, the introduction of complementary foods should be given its just a cup, spoon or dropper.
10. Shifting the baby to the second breast only when he first suck the breast. If mom hurry to offer the second breast kid, he's not dopoluchit "hindmilk" rich in fat. As a result, the baby may have problems with digestion, lactase deficiency, frothy stools. Prolonged sucking one breast will provide a full bowel.
11. Exclusion of washing nipples before feeding and after. Frequent washing of the chest leads to removal of the protective layer of fat areola and nipple, which leads to cracking. The chest should not be washed more than 1 time a day during a hygienic shower. If a woman is taking a shower less, and in this case there is no need for an additional washing of the breast.
12. Disclaimer of checkweighing child spent more than 1 time per week. This procedure does not provide objective information about good nutrition of the baby. It just irritates the mother, leading to decreased lactation and unjustified introduction of supplementary feeding.
13. Exclusion of additional pumping milk. When properly organized breastfeeding milk produced just as much as the baby needs, so you need a breast pump after each feeding occurs. Expressing necessary in the case of forced separation of mother and child, mother to work out, etc.
14. Only breastfeeding up to 6 months - the child does not need the extra power and the introduction of complementary foods. According to some studies exclusively breastfed without compromising the health of the child can be up to 1 year.
15. Supporting mothers to breastfeed up to 1-2 years. Communication with women with a positive experience of breastfeeding, helps young mothers gain confidence in their abilities and get practical tips to help establish breastfeeding. Therefore, young mothers are advised to contact a parent support group breastfeeding as early as possible.
16. Education for child care and breastfeeding techniques needed modern mom so she could hassle with the convenience for you and your baby to raise it up to 1 year. Establish newborn care and teach the art of breastfeeding mothers consultants will help breastfeeding. The sooner the mother learns to motherhood, the less frustrating and unpleasant moments to transfer it with the baby.
17. Breastfeeding until the child is 1.5-2 years. Feeding up to a year is not a physiological term cessation of lactation, so when weaning and suffer the mother and child.
From birth to four weeks, your baby is considered a newborn. This month he spends between sleep and food, and almost no honors you with his eyes. He has not yet fully grown, to do something on their own, it in all need your help. The frequency of breastfeeding in the first month is very high. Stomach baby is still too small to accommodate a meal with a margin. It is therefore necessary to apply to the chest "on demand".
After each feeding some of the milk the baby spits up. If you are afraid that he srygnul all ate, then swipe a simple test. Pour a tablespoon of milk and pour it on the table. Rate size formed puddles. Now compare it with the amount of food belch. If it is within one tablespoon, then nothing to worry about. A newborn sleeps 16-18 hours a day, without schedules, chaotic, long sleeps during the day. He can wake up and fall asleep at any time, night and day. Hands clenched in fists and arms themselves close to the body. This is normal: increased tone will be held by the third month. Kid still unable to hold a rattle and generally hold anything with his hands.
The position of the newborn only horizontal or vertical (do not plant or have a seat on the hands). Until the age of 3 months, the baby's head and back should be well supported
Hold the baby's head, too, still can not. Lying on his stomach, he can only lift it for 15-30 seconds. Because of this, during the wear on your hands, mum to be careful and stick to the baby by the neck.
In the second month of life the baby makes the first attempt to express emotions through sounds. Before that, he shouted unconsciously, that was a sure sign of displeasure, but now he can "talk" and of good cheer
For months he already knows how to distinguish the voices of other people's parents, delivers voice signals and waits for a response. Some children may notice first smile. If the baby cries, just walk up to him, hold him to her. This gives him a sense of security.
At the same time the baby appears startle response to a loud sound. Often accompanied by fright Moro reflex - the kid throwing pens in hand, as if looking to hold on, and then crying out loud.
This month, your baby is sure to please you first conscious smile. If before his smile they were sleepy and fleeting, they are now becoming aware and express positive emotions and pleasure. Most often, the baby smiles when he sees native person mom or dad.
Reflex imitation necessary for learning, makes the kid to copy your facial expressions and sounds. Of course, this is not very similar, but very useful for the development of the child. He is a long time can look at you, studying and looking closely.
Many children under the age of two months already gulyat publish shrill sounds (except crying) to attract the attention of adults. They improvise and learn their vocal apparatus, try different pitch and volume, look for the response of adults.
If the mother does not take long kid, he starts to cry, and when putting - crying. To soothe many kids suck his thumb.
Handles and legs baby completely unbent, no hint of the former hypertonicity. In that case, if he still persists, see a doctor, that he examined the child and named him a massage.
Muscles of the child gradually gaining strength. Baby can already rely on the good leg, if maintained under the arms, and a long time to "stand" in this position.
Most children by this time well hold the head in any position of the body: horizontal and vertical. Along with the development of hand movements, stronger and grip. The kid can hold a rattle a few seconds before dropping from that tired. And even may shake the rattle.
If you hang in front of toddler toys, he would reach for her hand, which he had not done.
This month, the baby learns to sit with support at the back, for example in a pram, car seat or a special stool. In order not to overload the baby's back, do not pick it too straight.
Improving the skills of balance and support. Now, if you take the baby and raise the handles, he rises to his feet, while you hold it. Of course, he neither stand nor sit still, he can not.
Many children, especially those with low weight, already at this age are able to roll over from back to stomach and back. Furthermore, in the prone position the baby can completely wrung out from the support and straighten the arms.
The ability to sit alone does not appear immediately. As soon as the muscles get stronger lower back baby, it requires less support in the new position. Gradually, the child ceases to fall forward in a sitting position, and leans to one side until the vestibular system to improve the work and he does not learn to maintain body weight handles. The ability to sit alone does not appear immediately. As soon as the muscles get stronger lower back baby, it requires less support in the new position. Gradually, the child ceases to fall forward in a sitting position, and leans to one side until the vestibular system to improve the work and he does not learn to maintain body weight handles.
Many children at this age already teething. Their appearance can be predicted by the white tubercles in the gums, which gradually grow and cause the child severe itching. That's why it pulls everything in the mouth and gums cards.
Comes an important stage in a child's life. He begins to show interest in the food. This is the time of weaning. (Note: Doing feeding before six months is dangerous for the health of the baby !!!!) He already knows how much: turns in both directions from back to stomach and stomach to back, Sits with support for hands or spinu.Sidit a highchair or stroller, perfectly controls the position of the head, can crawl on their bellies on a flat surface, takes things precise hand movement.
First tooth appears (6 to 8 months) - the lower incisor.
Most importantly, what to teach kids from 7 to 9 months - alone sit, crawl on all fours and slowly get up. Some children love to crawl, and others not quite crawl and stand up straight.
A very important step in the development of fine motor skills - capturing object between thumb and forefinger (pincer grip).
The most important skill in the development of speech - a child learns to use their language in pronouncing the sounds. Now his ability and consonant sounds and syllables. Different children can pass these milestones slightly different times - some sooner and some a month later, and my mother is not worth much to worry about.
At this age, you can begin to leave the baby with relatives. Make it worth gradually, starting with 20 min and gradually increasing the time of up to 4 hours per day.
If you have not removed all dangerous items from the lower shelves, do not purchase all kinds of locks for cabinets and soft lining for sharp corners of furniture - it's time to do it. Because now your little lover leaves their mother's hands and embarks on a journey through an independent apartment, collecting everything in its path.
At this age, the baby is able to
• Hold on two feet without support, can make first steps. Walking is uncertain, with legs wide apart, often falls.
• Good walking with support around the furniture (table, chair).
• Well crawls on all fours (most children, but not all).
• Crawl up the stairs. Down still not able to go down.
• crawl through obstacles.
• Playing with small items (keep away all that baby can swallow).
• sharpen the pincer grip small objects.
• From a standing position on all fours can sit down and stand up.
This system takes into account that a child under one year is not saturated with new products - it simply tastes like to create for himself a bank of new flavors of products that made eating in his family, and his main food continues to be breast milk. This system is based on the natural interests of the child to the new food, on the imitation of adult kid - he tends to take a pen the same food and just send it in her mouth like mom or dad on the gradual adaptation of the organism to the new food crumbs.
Complementary foods are introduced not earlier than 6 months. Up to six months the child should be exclusively breastfed. Early introduction of complementary foods is dangerous for the health of the child.
If your child has turned 6 months and he is actively interested in the contents of my mother's dishes, it's time to introduce him to the family menu, however, only if it is a healthy diet. That is, in the family eat a lot of vegetables, fruits, grains and cereals, as well as dairy products, meat sparingly (not necessarily every day), fish. As can be less fatty, fried, not at all, or at least sausages, cakes, chocolates, soda ... If the baby shows interest in food mom before half a year - do not rush. Better start lures Babe later a couple of weeks earlier than 6 months. The digestive system may not yet be ready to accept a new food, and beginning early lure, you can disrupt its natural maturation.
Applied in practice
As you can imagine, this complementary feeding requires no special tricks. The main thing - to feel it baby, do not insist on, and listen to their needs, interests and desires. Do not forget that the natural introduction of complementary foods or teaching goes against the background of breastfeeding. Kid continues to receive the breast as before, i.e. on demand. Scarce at the age of 6-8 months until the need of thorough lure, replacing him some of breastfeeds - it is enough breast milk, because it has all the necessary vitamins, minerals, antibodies and more. Energetically significant lure can get about 9-10 months, and sometimes later. Before that, the main meal of the child is the mother's milk. Mom not to worry and to take an active interest in the child to the new food for a lack of milk, even in the presence of such a love interest to breast milk and breastfeeding does not disappear.
How does the introduction to the new food? For example, if the mother is going to have breakfast at the table she takes with him his grown-up kid. Before mum plate of food, such as pancakes with cottage cheese, apples, tea and biscuits. Toddler seat better mom to her knees and put before him on the table teaspoon (keep in reserve by more spoons, in case the crumb will drop them). So pipsqueak engaged teaspoon - take it shifts from the handle in the handle knocks, pulls her mouth - examines, in a word. At this point, mom starts eating - take a pancake and it starts with an appetite to eat. Baby, if he will have an interest in what makes a mother, starts to reach for her food, literally trying to get her out of my mother's dishes. To the kid is not my mother's plate bezobraznichal in his actions should be limited. The kid has to sit on the left side of my mother's knee, if mom right-hander, and eat with your right hand and my mother's plate must be pushed so that the baby could not get out the food. If the baby is actively trying to get their own food, so its behavior is called nutritional interest. How to respond? Give your child a taste of what you eat - from pancake otschipnite very small piece and put it in her mouth crumbs. Little piece baby can chew a little, and swallow, and may spit from the mouth, it is a normal reaction the first time.
• The kid gets interested in his product Micro doses (the minimum amount of food that is placed between the pads of her mother thumb and index finger, the size of a match head).
• For breakfast pipsqueak can get three small doses of each product he liked, at this familiarity with the product ends, it will be possible to continue to lunch or dinner.
• If the crumbs shown sustained interest in a specific product for 3-5 days, then Microdoses increased to one teaspoon.
• Do not overfeed a baby whom he liked the product so that he has not lost interest in him. If a kid wants to aggressively try something specific, offer him something else.
When the baby does not respond to what mom eats something, and deals exclusively with a spoon - this means that interest in his food is no adult to introduce solid foods and it's still early. Take your time, just try to eat more often with gusto in front of him.
What if the kid tried one piece, not reaching for the next? We must give this product crumbs again, that he tasted? No, mom insist in any case should not. After all, your job is to maintain the interest of the crumbs to the new food, but do not feed him pancakes.
And mom eats more. Now she took a juicy apple and bit into it, and the kid drew a delicious crunch and bright color of the fruit - he reaches for it. Offer him Microdoses sample if he liked it and it still runs - well, give a couple more times, and then remove the apple to the kid is not overeaten. Pipsqueak need quite a bit for the first time. Toddler only acquainted with the new food, adapt to it, it does not seek to cram even the most delicious in his opinion the product.
It is important that pipsqueak tried the same dishes that mom eats. Since in this age change the properties of breast milk, now it helps the child to learn new food, supplying the necessary enzymes. Thus, breastfeeding baby facilitates the transition to a new kind of power.
Learning to chew and swallow after the baby is ready after 6 months. This requires a solid food in the form of small pieces of plates mom. This physiological stomach, is not ready for a big load after milk digested in the intestines, not the stomach. The food, which comes in the form of solid pieces, has a small area of contact with the mucosa. After contact with the wall of the stomach piece goes on through the stomach "in transit". If the period of weaning puree used, it envelops the mucous wall, creating an additional burden on the gastro-intestinal tract of the baby that can cause stomach ulcers in more adulthood. Protein and starchy food starts slowly absorbed in the child after 9 months. Fiber boiled partially digested after year, and raw after 4 years. You can see this "downstream" in the pot baby. Carrot, cabbage, apple "Exit" in the same form in which and go. Starting solid foods such as applesauce, you can get "out" ... applesauce. And if it is a small piece of apple that has passed through the stomach, do not hurt him, the goal of his - acquaintance with the apple.
Meat, potatoes, noodles, bread, biscuits, cheese, cheese, cereals, fish - it's all protein and starchy foods. It is these products are most often "fall to" the kid from his mother's plate. You will never see a pot of cheese at one year old child, for example, even if he eats his pieces. With the assimilation of cheese, biscuits, meat in all good baby!
And our mother, meanwhile, took tea with cookies. And the baby too wants! Pour him a sip of the sample. Better to have a single cup - of shatter-proof material, so that you can give without fear of crumbs in her hand. While the baby is just learning to drink from a cup, hold it for a bedplate and adjust the flow of fluid in the mouth of the baby. By the way, most likely, the kid did not want to try everything at once, and be limited to one of the favorite foods him. After the baby naprobuetsya or mother sees fit to complete his trial, the kid down on the floor, and my mother continues to quietly eat.
Independent table scraps
Besides joint with mom lunch or breakfast with evening meals at the table, it's time to teach Babe independent feeding. By this age, the baby is already capable of holding pens in small objects, so you can offer him a sample of solid pieces of vegetables and fruits, such of them can not kid myself a lot to bite off, such as carrots, squash, apples, or bagel, drying, cracker. Special love in children enjoy chicken bones with which pre-mom takes all the meat and cartilage. About her and Desenka pocheskt possible, and it is very tasty!
Of course, during self-eating mother should be close to the baby and monitor the process. If the kid took a big bite, you need to get the index finger of his mouth.
Continue to sample the food of adults
If the sample was successful new products and baby was active in this process, approximately 8-10 months in a child may already form one or two main feeding. For example, breakfast or lunch. However, they can still begin and end with breastfeeding because the baby drinks some adult food my mother's milk as water or juice. Do not wean the baby from this. The need to drink something else besides my mother's milk only occurs after year with little, that's when you can hear something like: "Give me some water!".
After 9-11 months of crumbs can already be put on a separate chair and offer him a separate plate (before he ate from my mother's). Mom helps chubby little boy managed with a spoon - it helps to gain food and pipsqueak he tries to convey to her mouth. Be patient - this process is not easy for the baby and for you - the spilled soup, potato fallen ... But this process is necessary, because you do not immediately have learned to eat neatly. If a kid is something spilled, immediately try to wipe Let accustomed to eat clean.
As we eat after a year
After years piccaninny shows great interest in food adult, he also as they sit at the table 3-4 times, and eats the same food, is no different from all the others. Can eat both the first and second course, if he wants.
If chubby little boy loves what he put in the plate, but he's already got yourself tired, he does not refuse, if the mother will help him finish his remains. In other situations, the kids do not like when they are fed, they tend to have all their own: a hand put a piece in a spoon, and then send it to the mouth.
In between meals, Malyshok can eat something else - eat carrots, crackers or apple.
Breastfeeding also remain: long - when the baby lies down to sleep or wakes up from sleep, short-term (those applying for contact with the mother - for 1-2 minutes) - depending on the condition of the baby. At some day they may be small, but in some more.